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SciShow explores the unexpected. Seven days a week, Hank Green, Michael Aranda, and Olivia Gordon delve into the scientific subjects that defy our expectations and make us even more curious!
Sundays - Learn about the amazing topics we can't quite make a stand-alone show about in SciShow List Show!
Mondays - Tune in for a short Dose about our weird world.
Tuesdays - Find answers to our most asked Quick Questions.
Wednesdays - Hank or Michael dives deep into a long-form Infusion episode, or an unscripted talk show or quiz show with a guest!
Thursday - Another new dose about the wonders of the world.
Fridays - Learn the latest in science News.
Saturdays - Get your quick questions answered!

Don't forget to check out our sister-channels SciShow Space, SciShow Psych, and SciShow Kids!


13:40There Are More Than Two Human Sexes
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3:20Why Don't All Birds Fly in V Shapes?
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6:41What Your Family History Can’t Tell You
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13:156 of the Coolest Things We've Found in Amber
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3:07Carnivorous Sponges - So That's a Thing
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6:13The Freezing Dunes of Northern Canada
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9:27We're Running Out of These Elements - Here's How
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5:04What If Earth Picked Up a Second Moon?
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4:21Poor, Misunderstood Poison Ivy
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9:545 Things We Still Get Wrong About Human Reproduction
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4:17How Much Data Can Our Brains Store?
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6:32New Cancer Drug Results and Vampire Bat Friendships
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25:12Your Cat Questions Answered! | Compilation
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4:07Carcolepsy: Why Do We Get Sleepy in Cars?
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4:44Could a Vaccine Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
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9:396 Reasons We Have to Say a Study Was "In Mice"
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4:33Why Do Corgi Mixes Always Look Like Corgis?
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6:52Loudest Bird in the World Screams at its Mate | SciShow News
20:29Terrific Trees: A SciShow #TeamTrees Compilation
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5:25I Can't Believe It's Not Wood
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13:21Why Do Humans Like to Get High?
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5:10How Big Can Black Holes Grow?
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6:06How We Could Prevent a Global Rice Shortage
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9:016 Seriously Impressive Animal Migrations
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3:48Firehawks: Nature's Arsonists
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6:49Robots Can Have Skin Now | SciShow News
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5:05Why We're So Bad at Recycling Plastic
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19:30Hank vs Aranda: The FINAL FACE-OFF | SciShow Quiz Show
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3:31Your Appendix Isn't Useless, After All
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13:068 More Terrible Names for Living Things
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2:59The Rainbow Gem Made from Ancient Sea Creatures
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5:40The Real Story of John Snow
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3:32Do You Need 10,000 Steps a Day?
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5:54Why People are Always Fighting Over the Thermostat
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3:52Are Soft Cheeses Dangerous During Pregnancy?
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18:226ish of Your Everyday Actions, Explained | Compilations
6:31Are Antioxidants Actually Good for Anything?
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5:58These Smart Roads Could Change the Future of Driving
9:20Seriously, None of These Are Ants | 8 Ant Mimics
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3:45The Mystery of the Black Diamond
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3:20Why Can't I Wear My Dog's Flea and Tick Collars?
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4:32The Deep-Sea Snail with an Iron Shell
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6:29Symbioses Are Way More Complex Than You Think!
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4:34How Tall Can Mountains Get?
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7:26Why Can't We Farm These Foods Yet?
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10:485 Types of Awesome Glass Made by Nature
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3:11Your Muscles Do Remember... But Not The Way You Think
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10:40P-values Broke Scientific Statistics-Can We Fix Them?
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5:35Scientists Just Figured Out How Washing Machines Work?!
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6:33How Living on Mars Would Make Life Better on Earth
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  • I feel so bad for children that were forced to have surgery at an early age, just to realize later that the doctors made a mistake. You can have corrective surgery, later in life, but what is gone will be gone forever. If gonads were removed, they will never come back.

  • Next: Why races are real.

  • 16,000 transphobes scared to go pee pee near the scary person.

  • So many millions of years of evolution, and life forms are still a total mess. :D

  • I don't understand how any of this implies that sex is a spectrum. Having abnormal set of chromosomes seems to be just a genetic anomally that applies for less than half a percent of population. I don't understand how can you make the claim that schools teach it wrong since these conditions are just a rare genetic abnormality. It seems to me that you claiming that sex is a spectrum is mostly ideologically driven. That being said I do think we could be handling gender dysphoria inssues better and there needs to be a discussion about that but bending these findings of science to advance you cultural position will make more harm than good.

  • These are disorders and anomalies, not 'new' or different sexes!

  • Race is also a spectrum?

  • if you ask 50 people in a room to split up by gender and went by the 2% of the pop with DSD you would have 25 males 24 females (or vise versa) with 1 person standing alone. that isnt a spectrum, thats two categories with an outlier. do you see why some people might be disagreeing with your statement that its a spectrum when put in that perspective?

  • I strongly urge SciShow to lock down the comments and likes on this video. The radioactivity otherwise is going to instantly give anyone terminal radiation poisoning.

  • Yes, a spectrum with two real values and a beautiful raindow of HORRIBLE LIFE-DESTROYING MUTATIONS.

  • See's title Oh the comments are gonna be this format

  • The like-dislike ratio is indication that the bar is a spectrum and not just binary.

  • Someone’s gonna get triggered...

  • Headline: There Are More Than Two Human Sexes, therefore: Syndromes and birth defects are a unique sex?!

  • Before you soy powered losers say anything,I watched the video,it’s wrong.You’re either a boy,a girl,or mentally challenged.

  • I was so excited when I found a trusted source that might actually say there are more than 2 biological sexes(which I didn’t and still don’t) so maybe I could show this to my somewhat transphobic dad. I watched the video. I’m disappointed scishow

  • This hasn't been a daunting societal problem for thousands of years. WHY now all of a sudden we need to bend over and cater to a small percentage anomaly of society in EVERYTHING? It's nice to know about but not something that needs laws made to cater to them. A doctors note for any 1 person with a condition should suffice in most settings if it is of any concern in a matter.

  • Basically you’re describing rare genetic conditions. These are not “normal” developmental processes, and should not be considered just as “differences” in the politically correct sense. Although of course people should always be treated with respect as human beings.

    • It’s a misleading argument to use rare genetic conditions as evidence that “biological sex isn’t binary”. Yes. It is binary in any definition of normal healthy development.

  • Summary: if you are non-binary you are not normal and have mutation

  • "Throughout history, every mystery ever solved turned out to be: not magic." - Tim Minchin

  • Coming back to check if my dislike is still there... it is, thanks youtube

  • Strange, why the Archeologists only find man or woman from the dead? Where were all these sexes in the past? Why Animals are only Male and Female?

  • Can somebody explain to me the difference between binary and spectrum?

  • What's next furries are going to be a gender?

  • The like/dislike ratio proves that people don't care about facts and science as much as they care about their own biases.

    • How do you know why people disliked the video?

  • I don't get why people have disliked the video. Most of these things are basic high-school biology.

  • Facts don't care about your feelings, boomers. Scishow DESTROYS the alt right. Poor butthurt snowflakes. (I can't think of more but feel free to add your own! We have a lot of bootybothered boomers clinging to their government issued 60's textbooks, rip for triggering.)

  • You only named 2 sexes, and then just pointed out anomalies to those 2. According to this video there are only 2 sexes, but a lot of deformities and defects that can screw with those 2. There are still only 2 though.That's literally all you said, not once did you even approach the statement "There are more then two human sexes" in this video. You just turned it into a medical sideshow act I never heard a 3rd or 4th sex get named, just defective versions of sex A or B. And a defective (congenital defect) version of sex A or B doesn't make it now sex C.

  • What about the people that fall somewhere between "like" and "dislike" for this video?

  • Who came here after watching The Doctors?

  • Well if the science says so I guess it’s ok

  • Well..that title is just wrong

  • Do these defects really mean that biological sex is a spectrum? This is a genuine question. I’m just not sure that a bunch of different possible defects make a strong enough case to say that sex is a spectrum. Because 98% of the time, it’s not. It kind of feels like saying blood types are a spectrum even thought there are 4 possible blood types.

    • It doesn't, a man with an extra X chromosome is still a man, the sources in the description seem to agree with that notion, unlike what SciShow presents in the video.

  • So as far as biological growth, the gonadal ridges can only fall along binary lines during development, be that testes or ovaries. The two ducts that form with it however can both independently form both oviducts and vas deferens, while the external genitalia folds inward or outwards. And this is all carried out by the genetic landscape of the tissue and hormones present during development. However, regardless of the landscape of chromosomes, only one functional pair of sexual organs can form, which is by definition a persons sex in biology. Intersex, or this spectrum between the two, means infertility and is thus classified appropriately as a disorder. Growths of the opposite sexual ducts is interesting, but hardly important as it’s the equivalence of your third eyelid in terms of function. Gender dysphoria and expression don’t appear to be linked to these anomalies, so it would be dishonest to correlate biological sex and gender by calling it a spectrum. Disagreements are highly encouraged.

  • oh no......not this channel too.....

  • Birth defects you mean?

  • HAHAHHAHA HANK YOU FCKED UP THIS TIME BUDDY xD There is only 2 sexes There is only 2 genders (unless you have a rare genetic disorder like klinefelter syndrom). Who ever says otherwise clearly doesn't understand how science works.

  • Fails to include outside factors like confusing moments in child psychology

    • I fail to see how these would affect your genitals/chromosomes

  • what if you had ovaries and testicles and after puberty, you start fertilizing yourself, and every 9 months you give birth to a clone of yourself?

  • As a biologist (with multiple degrees), this video is pretty loose with some facts and implies ambiguity where typically hasn’t been in the past. Not technically wrong but does what it’s designed to do, muddy the facts surrounding the issue. That being said, do what you want people. Don’t rely on any group or agenda (left or right) dictate your views/opinions. Do your own research. Step one, realize everyone in these videos and on TV has an agenda.

  • Thanks for this brilliant video!

  • Hank is telling the truth. He has made this as simple as possible. I am a retired Psychiatrist and I am a developmental expert. I have spent my all my adult life studying this.

  • This is a very well put together video, I have to say! It was clean and understandable, with good, logically founded explanations. I also don't feel like you tried to branch out into more emotional and subjective topics. I feel sorry for everyone who probably just slammed the dislike button without looking at what this video is saying: Nothing but simple facts and the truth.

  • Hi all, looking for some clarification. Maybe someone here can help me out. I'm not questioning the Info in the video but some of its conclusions (or what I perceive to be the conclusions). Question 1: How is that a spectrum? You said, that the percentage of people, who do not fall into one of the two sex categories, is roughly 2%. So, you have an interpretive structure that works 98% of the time and doesn't work 2% of the time. Is that not just the "exception that proves the rule"? Apart from making people feel comfortable, what is to be gained in reconceptualizing this? Especially since it has a 98% "success rate". Question 2: These categories we use OBVIOUSLY are not "firm" like definitions are ... right?. I always believed (and I think, I learned this in school too) that any categorization, we as humans impose upon the world, is imperfect. Even the hardest, biological "rules" (like the sex binary) have exceptions. I mean even the laws of Physics and Nature seem to stop applying when we consider the realm of quantum mechanics. These "rules" that we create are not perfect representations of how the world is and they were never meant to be. They were meant to be useful categories to reduce the complexity of the world to a level that enabled us as humans to act and to survive. Was that different in the US? Am I misinterpreting or misunderstanding something? lemme know

  • The ratio isnt as bad as I was expecting

  • Ok. But what about snakes with human traits

  • There's still transphobic people? Mamma mia....

  • Why this doesn't apply to animals?

  • @7:27 he claims recycling the metals will help stop climate can't stop the climate, brother.

  • I love SciShow and they are usually so skillfull and neutral in dealing with touchy subjects, but I have to point out a couple of things: First, the title is wrong, there aren't more than two human sexes, there isn't a third one, or any other number of sexes, it's just that, like in every category, there are edge cases. Second, I fear they didn't really put enough emphasis that these edge cases are (almost) all pathological, and more often than not have serious life threatening consequences or at least significantly decrease life quality. I've read comments with people who seemed to take the 2% figure to mean maybe 2% of the population is chimeric or with some other barely irrelevant form of deviation from the physiological norm. That is FAR from the truth. I would suggest changing the title to something more accurate like "There aren't SIMPLY just two human sexes". We must remember that we live in a time where there are teams of people, even doctors, who recommend hormonal or surgical therapy to 13 or 14 year old teens, and we have a herd of people who regret these therapies but can't do anything about it now. Even though it seems to me everything in this video is true (except the title), it still could be more carefully presented.

    • There aren't SIMPLY just two human sexes There Are More Than Two Human Sexes wow such difference... The title summarizes it all good. No need to twist words.

  • DSD is nature's way of saying "oops, I f**ked up"

  • D12 assume the position and get back down on ya knees

  • "ThEre aRe 2 gENdeRs BecAuSE ScIEncE aNd LOgiC"

    • There are though. Check any of the sources in the description, they seem to agree with that

  • Wierd... sex transition surgery only has 2 choices.

    • That's... not how that works, friend.

  • Is there any way to "measure" gender precise?

  • I shower every day, sometimes two times a day if I've gotten sweaty during the day, but I rarely use any soap. Water alone removes dirt and sweat quite well, and those are the things I shower to get rid of, so I see no reason to use soap. I do use shampoo 1-2 times a week though

  • So..... What if you somehow are able to get two Y chromosomes?

    • The X chromosome might have other information that is needed to survive.

  • SciShow: Does research, cites sources, has a take backed by science People in the comments section: nu-uh! I wonder which side has the more compelling arguments

    • The issue is the only numbers they quoted were 1 in 600 being the most common case. If you're going to say sex isn't binary because 1 out of 600 people aren't binary that's not good science. He listed off a bunch of mutations that are harmful in most cases and used them as evidence to say we aren't either a man or woman. With that reasoning we aren't bipedal animals as many of us are born without legs, or with legs that don't work or maybe even 3 legs.

    • but the sources suggest them as birth defects while the video suggests them as a sex spectrum which confuses me.

    • Sounds like someone didn't actually check the sources.

    • You're in for a surprise if you check these sources, none of them mentions that there are more than 2 biological sexes.

  • So intersex! We just call it something else now. More informative than news really. If one possesses a Y chromosome they are genotypically male. If not than the person is genotypically female.

  • Personally I don't see mutations or special cases as 'another sex'. Yeah sure there's more to sex than XX and XY but for the average person XX means female and XY means male. The people with XXX chromosomes still appear female for example, not some new sex with different sex organs. It's like saying 'oh, this person has a special chromosome, therefore they're another species'. Like no, it's just a mutation. It's interesting to learn about these mutations though.

  • Slightly out of date now BTW, since it's a 2012 vid. Scientists now think human females also mated with multiple males so there is paternal uncertainty, to get multiple pools of resources for childcare since it's good for a male to raise the child in case it is their own. This has been evidenced by female sexual behaviours (being louder, having longer multiple orgasms and not sleeping after sex), pack dynamics with multiple mating males and 'it takes a village to raise a child' caregiving, and the potential existence of 2 types of sperm, with 1 type to fertilise an egg and 1 to block another male's sperm.

  • We're all made of ... matter?atoms?carbon? Nah. We're a bunch of X's and Y's going crazy

  • People are mad at science and fact...whats new. Good job guys :) keep it up x

  • the wokeness is real

  • Oh lord here we go

  • lmao why people are so triggered? He just said that there's a spectrum of males and females, that's not news

  • Despite the clear attempt to dodge the sociopolitical-bullet, a very informative and well made video discussing a difficult and complex topic that affects many people. And in pours the hate-bombs from people who didn't bother watching it at all for the sake of confirmation bias, among other thing. :/

  • Imagine disliking science. Great video!

  • People need to stop with the dislikes. Whenever there is any talk about gender/sex/whatever, they insist on hearing scientific arguments. This is as scientific as it can be, so calm down.

  • So how many sexes are there

  • Honestly, I enjoy it for some reason. Like that feeling when I lay down and all my blood is slowly coming back to me.

    • I feel my weight more than ever before, and it is SO relaxing. Makes me feel like I could sleep forever.


  • All the dislikes are from angry and confused gaybois

  • If your "spectrum" of sexes have the name "syndrome" in it, then it isn't healthy. If these people can't reproduce then they aren't a functional gender. Gender is just humans that love to label things anyway, while biology couldn't care what your gender is as long as you can reproduce. That's like saying that 1% of people with club foot means that feet are a spectrum, when in reality it's a medical condition. This isn't science, this is just a strawman argument. Going around and saying that these mutations are a spectrum of gender that effects 2% of population is just misleading.

  • If I have lower testosterone and incomplete testicular development does it mean I'm a girl?

    • @shammy I watched the video, I also read the sources, which don't classify disorders as new sexes. I genuinly recommed you read some of them too, perhaps you'll see the video in a different light

    • @maixmm778 Watch the video again, but this time at 0.75 speed.

    • @shammy Nonsense, if you have male parts and can reproduce, you're a male, if you can't you're a male with a defect.

    • No, it means that you are living evidence that sex is a bimodal distribution that is not as simple as "boy" or "girl".

    • I wouldn't know because I am not schooled in this field but I wouldn't say you're a biological female or girl but you should talk about this with your doctor :)

  • because the ones who don't were out drinking last night.


  • Came for the comments

  • 16K triggered conservatives disliked this video.

    • 24k ignorant liberals.

  • There are always differences with biology, because of evolution. What really matters is which ones stick around, and which ones have the majority. Technically It might be not binary, but practically only two of them has an effect on human race.

  • Why does her face look so wet? Is it sweat?

  • Infertility, learning and speaking difficulties, webbed neck (Turner syndrome), etc. Are these really other human sexes or medical conditions? Following your logic, are people with Down Syndrome another type of human?

    • That's exactly the problem with the video, shame so many people would be misled by it

  • I work in SE Australia and always wondered how it was possible for drossera (carnivorous plants) to catch enough insects to make the investment in sticky leaves and such viable (the water loss alone!). Then one day I was out in the bush during a regional termite flight event. Probably millions of male termites taking to the air to mate with the odd female. Every drosera (sundew?) i came across was was absolutely caked in wing bits and struggling termites... it was incredible. Those plants must wait for that event every year.

  • Does birds have VTOL capability?

  • Dislike ratio clearly shows how people dont understand the difference between sex and gender.

  • However what percentage of the lgbtq have dsd

    • doesn't matter. sex is completely different from gender

  • "Chosen gender" rubbed me the wrong way, but other than that I enjoyed this video.

  • The average Joe doesn't care about this stuff.

  • Two words: *asteroid mining*

  • Should we really change the concept of a two-sex-society because a very small percentage of people has a problematic DSD? I think it would be easier if this small percentage would adapt rather than the whole rest.

  • Thank you, Scishow, for that summary - it is very informative. I had no idea how complex the problem is on the biology side, not to mention the cultural one.

  • The caption of "biological sex is a spectrum" is misleading as it infers that that's the case 100% of the time for everyone on Earth when the video then goes on to outline biological events that are more rare then common and usually cause some sort of problem for the individual. So, not a fan of click bait and expect a little more from Sci show.

  • Dislike it all you want, doesn't make it not true!

    • That’s where you’re wrong kiddo

    • None of the sources listed proclaim a spectrum. These are birth defects.

  • I've seen suggestions for a bi-modal sex model in the past, and I think that makes a lot of sense. Like whats shown in this video around the 3:00 mark, there are two common sex groups (phenotypes), but there's *more* than just those two phenotypes, and there's variation within those phenotypes too. To me, it doesn't seem like a compromise, it just seems like the most accurate descriptor. TL;DR "bi-modal" describes the human sex spectrum pretty well

  • Why do people even watch the video if they don't believe in science? Great video guys, teaching me new things every week!

  • Why is this not a SciShow Psych video ?! Also, I understand what you tried to do with this video and it's nice but damn... Wrong channel.

    • I thought the vid was a good fit. I figured they only mentioned gender temporarily to note that the video is /not/ about Gender or Gender expressions, but to flesh out a false dichotomy imposed on sex.

  • So to be clear, perhaps "There *Is* More Than Two Human Sexes" would probably have been a more accurate title, considering that those other examples are clearly just subtypes or blends of either of the primary ones, or have I misunderstood everything? Great video btw, I see no reason beyond superficiality to dislike this....goddamn pedantics.....

    • There are two base human sexes. The graph at 3:21, even when merged, has two symbols.

  • As someone deeply opposed to gender-fluid nonsense, this video is science based. It discusses genetic defects and isn't pushing an agenda. Calm down and maybe watch a video before judging.

    • i dont think thats what people are disagreeing with. if you look at other comments people are taking issue with them calling it a spectrum, when they clearly admit DSD affects only 2% of the pop max that is not large enough to be signifigant. someone used a very good anaology. if 2% of the population is born with either 4 or 6 fingers on each hand we arnt going to start claiming that "the number of fingers on a persons hand is a spectrum" that would be using these words' terminology incorrectly. we would consider people with 5 to be normal and those born with more or less to be abnormal resulting from a defect. basically these people are accepting the science but are saying its not a spectrum, its a defect.

  • Why so many dislikes? They're right

    • Try reading the sources they cite and what they take away from those sources (and what they purposefully omit to fit the narrative)

  • Funny how science changes depending on who's offended. You made that 2% sound like a group of people that had an unidentifiable sex. This is very misleading, and I'm sad that you said it this way. It's only about 2% of that 2% that "may" be able to be in that category. The vast majority of even these 2%, that you mentioned, are still able to have children as a man or as a woman. You're discussion on hormones and genes are not the same as sex. That is why we never have this conversation about animals in the wild. It's a nonsense argument. The problem is that what I'm saying is confused as "hate," and I definitely do not hate anyone who identifies as a gender other than the sex they were born with